Climate adaptation through sustainable urban development: Developing Adaptation Options to improve future water security in Makassar City

Select | Print

Tjandraatmadja, Grace; Larson, Silva; Kirono, Dewi ORCID ID icon; Salman, Dharmawan; Barkey, Roland; Selitung, Mary



35 pp

On the 24th April 2012, a workshop was conducted in Makassar to discuss climate change scenarios and its impacts to Makassar’s future water supply, and to develop adaptation options that may increase future water security in view of urban development and climate change projections. The workshop was attended by 46 participants and included government officials from the province of South Sulawesi (including EPA, Dept. of Natural Resources, Catchment Management ), water utilities from three regional cities, private operators (in charge of the two largest water treatment plants in the area), Local government officials , academics and postgraduate students from the two largest universities in South Sulawesi and non-government organisations. The workshop started with the presentation of newly developed original research outputs: (a) Climate change projections for Mamminasata (b) Impact of climate change on hydrology of key rivers in Mamminasata (c) Map of Erosion risk for Mamminasata region based on climate projections; (d) Analysis of future water availability for Makassar in view of climate change, urban growth and infrastructure investment. This was followed by presentations on the status of the water and wastewater system and examples of initiatives adopted in Makassar and in Australia for urban adaptation by PDAM Makassar, UNHAS, Local government (DPU) and CSIRO. The main outcomes from the Climate change adaptation options workshop include: • Adaptation options identified by workshop participants as potentially suitable for Makassar are: New sources a. Absorption well (Biopori) at each houses b. Recovery tank at each IPA (water treatment plant) c. Grey water collection, then treatment using technology d. Grey water collection, wetland treatment e. Manmade water retention pools f. New large dam (Pamukkulu Dam) Managing existing sources g. Reforestation of the catchment areas Operation and monitoring h. Channel (kanal) dredging i. River normalisation (river dredging) for rivers providing raw water supply Soft tools j. Water/environment-related curriculum for schools (Prep, primary school, secondary school) k. Popularisation of the water shortage issue (through media, etc) l. Adult awareness program (‘sosialisation’): dissemination of the water/environment related facts; attitude towards nature as precious and in need to be ‘looked after’ m. Demonstration (pilot project) of the use of treated wastewater • Potential barriers to adaptation in Makassar city were identified by participants as: a. Coordination and regulation b. Limited budget c. Biophysical condition d. Infrastructure and technology e. Human resources f. Mindset • Recovery tanks/IPA, Biopori and Adult awareness programs (“Socialization”) were selected as the three preferred adaptation options for Makassar by participants. The three options differ markedly in in scope of application, impact and also on their dependency on social factors. Hence, the path to implementation and the effectiveness of such measures in increasing the sustainability of water, stormwater and wastewater provision in Makassar will require further investigation. The feasibility of the recovery tanks is currently under evaluation by PT Traya Tirta, the company operating Pannaikang and Somba Opu water treatment plant. PT Traya Tirta estimates that the tanks will allow it to achieve an additional 7% increase in current production at each of the plants by 7%. Implementation of the tanks (technological solution) and their operation would be under the hands of PT Titra, which is a specialised service operator. Biopori is an ingenious technology which requires simple tools for construction. Its long-term performance requires maintenance by householder and property owners. A legislative framework for implementation of Biopori has been developed with funding being managed by the Pusat PPE Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup KLH, i



Environmental Management

Published Version (pdf) (1.83MB)

© 2012 CSIRO To the extent permitted by law, all rights are reserved and no part of this publication covered by copyright may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means except with the written permission of CSIRO.


Client Report (Author)


Tjandraatmadja, Grace; Larson, Silva; Kirono, Dewi; Salman, Dharmawan; Barkey, Roland; Selitung, Mary. Climate adaptation through sustainable urban development: Developing Adaptation Options to improve future water security in Makassar City. Australia: CSIRO; 2012. csiro:EP125798.

Loading citation data...

Citation counts
(Requires subscription to view)